Microwave whispering-gallery resonator for efficient optical up-conversion


Conversion of microwave radiation into the optical range has been predicted to reach unity quantum efficiency in whispering-gallery resonators made from an optically nonlinear crystal and supporting microwave and optical modes simultaneously. In this work, we theoretically explore and experimentally demonstrate a resonator geometry that can provide the required phase matching for such a conversion at any desired frequency in the sub-THz range. We show that such a ring-shaped resonator not only allows for the phase matching but also maximizes the overlap of the interacting fields. As a result, unity-efficient conversion is expected in a resonator with feasible parameters.

Physical Review A